Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal Logo AgroParisTech_University

Economie Publique

UMR Economie Publique


Valentin Guye will defend his thesis on Tuesday, November 29th, 2022.

At AgroParisTech, 22 place de l'agronomie, 91120 Palaiseau, at 2:00 pm in room C2.2.43, Valentin Guye will present his thesis: "Forest, Food and Fuel: Empirical Identification of Global Sustainability Trade-offs", co-supervised by Raja Chakir, Sabine Fuss and Nicolas Koch, within the framework of a co-supervision between the University of Paris-Saclay (Paris-Saclay University) and the Universität zu Berlin.



Sustainable development requires to improve global human systems in several dimensions, from poverty reduction and food security to energy availability and environmental conservation. Actions that help improve some dimensions of sustainability may deteriorate others, but such conflicts are not all equivalents. Therefore, aiming at sustainable development implies to make the best trade-offs. Yet, remote side-effects are hardly acknowledged, and the latent mechanisms that convey them through controllable levers are insufficiently understood.

In this doctoral dissertation, I propose three studies that contribute to the empirical understanding of global sustainability trade-offs. I focus in particular on agricultural commodities which provide a platform for trade-offs in many dimensions of sustainability. In every study, I infer causal relationships from observational data to shed lights on specific parts of these trade-offs. 

In the foremost study, I question the potential of oil palm prices as a lever to control the trade-offs between food and bio-energy availability, rural development, and environmental conservation. The study focuses on Indonesia, where these trade-offs are most acute and are globally significant. I build the first spatially explicit data set of input and output prices at the gates of half of the known palm oil mills across Indonesia. The part of this local variation that comes from downstream shocks - and is thus exogenous to local deforestation - provides a quasi-experimental setting to identify the price elasticity of deforestation. The results of this study indicate that price instruments can disincentivize deforestation, in particular for illegal and smallholder plantations that are most difficult to regulate. However, the results also highlight the conflict between environmental conservation and rural development, that needs to be addressed fairly. with environmental justice considerations.

The two other studies in this dissertation focus on the maize-ethanol mandates under the Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) program of the United States. This policy has lifted the availability and reliability of renewable fuel for transportation, while yielding one of the largest cumulative shock on global crop markets in the last decades. The potential disruption on global ecosystems and food security are so large that the efforts to quantify them has sparked an entire literature. The second and third studies featured in this dissertation provide rare observational insights to this literature. They both leverage that the annual mandates were pre-determined in 2007, and up to 2022, as a quasi-experimental source of variation.

In the second study, I exploit this variation to detect signals of pan-tropical ecosystem disruption due to indirect land use change (ILUC) triggered by the RFS mandates. The diversity of commodities associated with these signals allows, by abductive inference, to test the ILUC theory empirically. The results corroborate the land use displacement mechanism. They also indicate the general prevalence of the mechanisms that propagate the incentives to expand cropland – including in the case of soy and temporary pasture, the major drivers of deforestation. These results warn about the reality of ILUC and contribute to better predict it to improve the sustainability trade-offs it is involved in.

In the third study, I analyze the impact of the American ethanol mandates on global food security. I observe how undernourishment prevalence evolves with the pre-determined RFS mandates, according to every country's dependency on imports for its domestic supply of calorie. I find that thanks to the mandates being announced in advance, countries could anticipate the increments in global maize demand and make preemptive adjustments that offset the otherwise worsening effect of the mandates.