Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal Logo AgroParisTech_University

Economie Publique

UMR Economie Publique


Issam-Ali Moindjie.; Corentin Pinsard.; Francesco Accatino; Raja Chakir : Interactions between ecosystem services and land use in France: a spatial statistical analysis

The provision of ecosystem services (ESs) is driven by land use and biophysical conditions and is thus intrinsically linked to space. Large-scale ES models, developed to inform policy makers on ES drivers, do not usually consider spatial autocorrelation that could be inherent to the distribution of these ESs or to the modeling process. The objective of this study is to estimate the drivers of ecosystem services in France using statistical models and show how taking into account spatial autocorrelation improves the predictive quality of these models. We study six regulating ESs (habitat quality index, water retention index, topsoil organic matter, carbon storage, soil erosion control, and nitrogen oxide deposition velocity) and three provisioning ESs (crop production, grazing livestock density, and timber removal). For each of these ESs, we estimated and compared five spatial statistical models to investigate the best specification (using statistical tests and goodness-of-fit metrics). Our results show that (1) taking into account spatial autocorrelation improves the predictive accuracy of all ES models (Δ R 2 ranging from 0.13 to 0.58); (2) land use and biophysical variables (weather and soil texture) are significant drivers of most ESs; (3) forest was the most balanced land use for provision of a diversity of ESs compared to other land uses (agriculture, pasture, urban, and others); (4) Urban area is the worst land use for provision of most ESs. Our findings imply that further studies need to consider spatial autocorrelation of ESs in land use change and optimization scenario simulations.



Moindjie, I.A.; Pinsard, C.; Accatino, F.; Chakir, R.
Interactions between ecosystem services and land use in France: a spatial statistical analysis
in : Frontiers in Environmental Science, (2022), vol. 10. art. 954655. 29 p.

More information