Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal AgroParisTech université Paris-Saclay

Welcome to ECOSYS

UMR ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes

Frédéric Rees

Research scientist

Frédéric Rees
Trophic fluxes from plants to rhizosphere

My research interests are related to the dynamics of carbon, nutrients and trace elements in soil-plant systems. I am currently working on trophic fluxes from plants to rhizosphere, by investigating how rhizodeposition and root mortality can regulate soil carbon storage. My aim is to understand how these different fluxes (exudation of soluble compounds, mucilage secretion, cells sloughing, etc.) are controlled by plant growth and its environment. I use both an experimental approach - quantitative and qualitative analysis of rhizodeposition - and modelling - development of new functional-structural plant models intended to be coupled to models describing soil organic matter dynamics.

I have worked previously on the dynamics of heavy metals in soil-plant-biochar systems during my PhD, on the dynamics of carbon in constructed Technosols during my first postdoc and on the dynamics of nutrients in mining Technosols of Alberta during my second postdoc in Canada.


Rees F., Simonnot M.O., Morel J.L. 2014. Short-term effects of biochar on soil heavy metal mobility are controlled by intra-particle diffusion and soil pH increase. European Journal of Soil Science, 65, 149-161

Rees F., Germain C., Sterckeman T., Morel J.L. 2015. Plant growth and metal uptake by a non-hyperaccumulating species (L. perenne) and a Cd-Zn hyperaccumulator (N. caerulescens) in contaminated soils amended with biochar. Plant and Soil, 395 (1), 57-73

Rees F., Sterckeman T., Morel J.L. 2016. Root development of non-accumulating and hyperaccumulating plants in metal-contaminated soils amended with biochar. Chemosphere, 182, 1-196

Bachmann H.J. et al. 2016. Toward the Standardization of Biochar Analysis: The COST Action TD1107 Interlaboratory Comparison. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64, 513-527

Zhang W., Huang X.,Jjia Y., Rees F., Tsang D.C.W., Qiu R., Wang H. 2017. Metal immobilization by sludge-derived biochar: roles of mineral oxides and carbonized organic compartment. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 39(2): 379-389

Rees F., Dhyevre A., Morel J.L., Cotelle S. 2017. Decrease in the genotoxicity of metal-contaminated soils with biochar amendments. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24 (36): 27634-27641

Tammeorg P., Bastos A.C., Jeffery S., Rees F., et al. 2017. Biochars in soils: towards the required level of scientific understanding. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 25(2): 192-207

Rees F., Watteau F., Mathieu S., Le Brech Y., Turpault M.P., Qiu R., Morel J. L. 2017. Metal immobilization by wood-derived biochars: distribution and reactivity of carbonate phases. Journal of Environmental Quality, 46(4): 845-854

Hazotte C., Laubie B., Rees F., Morel J.L., Simonnot M.O. 2017. A novel process to recover cadmium and zinc from the hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens. Hydrometallurgy, 174: 56–65

Quideau S.A., Norris C.E., Rees F., Dyck M., Samadi N., Oh S.W. 2017. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus release from peat and forest floor cover soils used during oil sands reclamation. Can. J. Soil Science, 97(4): 757-768

Watteau F., Huot H., Séré G., Begin, J.C., Rees F., Schwartz C., Morel J.L. 2018. Micropedology to reveal pedogenetic processes in Technosols. Spanish Journal of Soil Science, 8(2), 148-163

Rees F., Dagois R., Derrien D., Fiorelli J.L., Watteau F., Morel J.L., Schwartz C., Simonnot M.O., Séré G. 2019. Storage of carbon in constructed Technosols: in situ monitoring over a decade. Geoderma. 337:641-648