Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal AgroParisTech université Paris-Saclay

Welcome to ECOSYS

UMR ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes

Integration approaches for the environmental assessment of ecosystem services

Contribution to integration approaches for the environmental assessment of ecosystem services

To examine the interactions and trade-offs appearing between ecosystem services, ECOSYS seeks to integrate all services addressed, at scales relevant to the envisaged management measures (agroecosystems or territories). The consideration of an extended spatial and temporal field implies extension of the concerned domain of the models from a plot to a territory. These integration approaches are at the base of spatial ecotoxicology and biogeochemistry approaches, with the integration of inter-plot transfers. The key achievements were as follows:

➢          Space and time integration. The relevant scales for ECOSYS range from the plot to the region (cropping systems, farms and landscapes). The time scale ranges from days to several decades, through the annual crop cycle or multi-year crop succession. Original developments have been proposed in which the outputs of models at fine resolutions (soil aggregate, leaf, architectural models of plants) are used to estimates contaminant transfer and impacts at larger scales. Two examples of the achievements in this context are (1) a modeling work of pesticides at the sheet scale to consider pesticides in transfer models (N. LIchiheb's thesis) and (2) the development of NitroScape, a tool coupling a set of models for describing the nitrogen cascade at the landscape scale (Escapade, led by J.L. Drouet). Other activities related to the use of observation devices (SOERE PRO, ICOS) allowed acquisitions in different agropedoclimatic contexts and/or long-term chronic measurements.

➢          One of the key achievements was also the coordination of a LabEx BASC project ASSETS (coordinated by B. Gabrielle and P. Garnier, 2015-2020) “ASSessing Ecosystem services in Transitioning agro-ecosystemS” in the context of the Saclay plateau, submitted to changes in land use and management, with a particular focus on

(i) pressures from urbanization and (ii) the shift to agroecological practices.

➢          Multi-criteria integration for evaluations of a service network. The most successful integration exercise was made during the development of multi-criteria evaluation approaches for services rendered by wastes recycling as part of Obriot's thesis work (SNOWMAN and PROLEG projects led by Sabine Houot). All the indicators characterizing the different services have been aggregated, making it possible to compare different scenarios.

➢          Integration at the level of cropping systems. Joint consideration of the environmental and health impacts of pesticides at the level of a cropping system was proposed in the Lammoglia’s thesis and in the ECOPEST and PERFORM projects led by Laure Mamy. This work was conducted as part of the accompanying Ecophyto plan. In another field, the comparison of alternative nitrogen source insertion scenarios (OWP, legumes) is one of the outputs of the work carried out within UMT Alter'N.

All of this work moves in the direction of establishing a link between production systems, farming practices and the functioning of agroecosystems (biological functioning, environmental impacts)  and providing feedback regarding "impact assessment - practice modification". These activities, managed by Patricia Garnier and Benoît Gabrielle, are mainly carried out by the Soil and Eco&Phy teams (with more than 70 publications in each team), and 13 publications are co-signed by at least two different teams.