Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal AgroParisTech université Paris-Saclay

Welcome to ECOSYS

UMR ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes

RL1. Biological regulations and communication in crops: Identification of key processes driving the yield and resilience of bio-diverse canopies

Global environmental changes, particularly climate change, requires to rethink crop management practices to reduce fertilizer and pesticide inputs. This leads to greater heterogeneity within the canopy and a larger dependency on environmental constraints. For example, lowering crop densities and synthetic input rates will increase variability in plants biomass, favor weed development as well as that of pathogens and parasites, which are potential sources of crop damage. Agroecology promotes the self-regulatory capacities of ecosystems based on biological processes through for instance an increase in biodiversity within the crop (a bio-diverse canopy). These processes remain poorly understood and little quantified in agroecosystems, and therefore new references need to be established. In this context Eco&Phy has recently started studying biological regulations within agroecosystems (root exudates, secondary metabolism, quality of light), and broaden the range of studied crops (pure crops, varietal mixtures, species associations, interactions with macro fauna). In this five-year RP, our ambition is to unravel key regulatory processes and assess their share in the resilience of canopy. The outcomes of this project aim at identifying key biological regulation processes and the relevant scales to design resilient agroecosystems.

The project will consist of three components, based on the two crop species mainly studied in the team (wheat and oilseed rape), grown in pure crops, in varietal mixtures (wheat), or as intercrops (oilseed rape/legumes) depending on the processes studied and the objectives. The first two components will address the two themes already addressed in the team enriched with biological regulatory processes to assess their contribution: (i) plant defense processes (plant- pest interactions) and (ii) carbon and nitrogen resource management. A third, more exploratory component (iii) will focus on the role of communication processes, which we assume will be important in understanding the functioning of agroecosystems.

  • Biological regulations in plant defense processes. The aim will be to assess virulence transmission in a pathogen population during a growing season in wheat varietal mixtures, and identify biological regulations induced by the mixture. This component is the subject of a thesis project in collaboration with the BIOGER unit.
  • Biological regulations in the management of N and C resources considering within-crop diversity of organisms. The aim will be to (i) better understand the management of C and N resources in oilseed rape-legume associated covers by identifying key biological regulation processes (competition and facilitation at aerial and root levels, plasticity of aerial and root architectures, light effect and signals). Additionally, we will (ii) evaluate the role of plants-microbial interactions in the C and N cycles, and especially the role of root exudates in the C balance, and of the microbial compartment in N supply to the crop. This component will be supported by IMPULSE, RAPSODYN, BREEDWHEAT projects.
  • Exploring the role of communication in biological regulations. Example of VOC in plant-pest interactions. We will develop prospective researches on the role of VOCs in plant-plant-pest interactions, by both identifying the compounds involved and understanding their role in the ecosystem resilience. It relies on the team's dual expertise measuring VOC emitted by plants by PTR-QiTOFMS and designing controlled mesocosm devices for the control and differential removal of plant organs in stands under stress (PERISCOPE, LED, PhAIRE). Tri- trophic relations between plants, aggressors and auxiliaries, will be studied in the case of push-pull systems (in oilseed rape), which has rarely been evaluated in our latitudes (collaboration with BIOGER and Agronomie units).

This RP will be jointly carried out at ECOSYS level within the "Biomasses" structuring theme (C-N cycles, soil-plant interactions) and the "Diversity” theme (heterogeneous cover, plant-pest interactions).