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Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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UMR ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes

Poster 1 : Climator_PathosystèmeBlé_2010

poster 1
Marie-Odile Bancal, David Gouache, Nathalie Gagnaire, Romain Roche

Analyse des effets du changement climatique sur les pathosystèmes aériens du blé

Chez le blé, deux maladies foliaires peuvent aboutir à des pertes de rendement très importantes, de l’ordre de 40%, du fait de leur fréquence et deleur sévérité : la septoriose, provoquée par Mycosphaerella graminicola, champignon phytopathogène hémibiotrophe, dispersé principalement par la pluie et favorisé par des températures fraîches et des conditions d‘infection lâches et la rouille brune, provoquée par Puccinia tritici, champignon phytopathogène obligatoire biotrophe, dispersé sur de longues distances par le vent et favorisé par des températures chaudes et des durées d’humectation courtes. Comme conséquence de ces différences biologiques, leur aire de répartition est complémentaire: Nord pour la septoriose et Sud pour la rouille brune. Le lien étroit entre développement épidémique et climat fait que le cycle de ces champignons est essentiellement décrit par des variables climatiques.

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