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UMR ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes

Soutenance de thèse de Justine Barthod

mardi 17 Octobre 2017 à 14H - 4 place Jussieu) dans la salle de conférence de l'UFR TEB (2ème étage, tour 46/56)

Soutenance de thèse de Justine Barthod
'Innovative waste treatment by composting with minerals and worms: effects on carbon storage, soil properties and plant growth


Procédé de compostage innovant en présence de vers et de minéraux :

effets sur le stockage de carbone, les propriétés du sol après amendement et la croissance des végétaux.

Basés sur la bio-oxidation de la matière organique, le compostage et le vermicompostage émettent des quantités non négligeables de CO2. Ainsi, ce travail s’intéresse (1) à la stabilisation potentielle du carbone de la matière organique compostable due à l’ajout de minéraux, avec et sans vers, et (2) l’influence des minéraux sur la maturité et la qualité du compost final. La première expérience consista en une incubation de matière organique, permettant d’obtenir différents composts et vermicomposts, avec et sans minéraux, de suivre les émissions de carbone et d’analyser les produits obtenus. Une deuxième incubation a été menée pour étudier l’effet de ces produits en tant qu’amendement sur un sol.

Enfin, le suivi de la croissance de A.Thaliana en présence de co-composts et co-vermicomposts en tant que fertilisant fut réalisé.

La présence de minéraux lors du compostage induit une baisse des émissions de carbone, probablement due à la formation d’associations organo-minérales ou bien par un changement des communautés microbiennes.

De plus, les co-composts, en tant qu’amendement semblent augmenter les stocks de carbone du sol, comparé à un compost classique. Enfin, bien que l’aspect fertilisant des co-composts obtenus soit optimum, ils n’ont pas amélioré la croissance d’A.Thaliana. La présence de vers lors du co-compostage a augmenté les émissions de carbone mais l’effet positif des minéraux sur la minéralisation était toujours observable. De plus, les vers ont augmenté la biodisponibilité des nutriments et le co-vermicompost a permis d’améliorer les propriétés du sol ainsi que la croissance des végétaux comparé à un (vermi)compost classique et un co-compost.

Mots clés : compost; vers; minéraux; carbone; croissance des plantes; sol; stock de carbone; amendement; fertilisant; analyses physico-chimiques; analyses microscopiques.



Innovative waste treatment by composting with minerals and worms:

effects on carbon storage, soil properties and plant growth Due to bio-oxidative mechanisms, composting and vermicomposting produce a large amount of CO2 emissions. Therefore, in this study we aimed to assess (1) the potential stabilization of carbon of fresh organic matter due to mineral presence, with and without worms, and (2) the influence of minerals on maturity and quality of the finished products. The first experiment was based on a laboratory incubation of fresh organic matter, which allowed to obtain composts and vermicomposts, with and without minerals, to monitor carbon emissions and to analyse the final products.

A second incubation was carried out to investigate the effect of these products as organic amendment on an arenic cambisol. Finally, the last experiment was carried out to assess the use of co-composts and co-vermicomposts as potting media, by following the growth of. A.Thaliana.

The presence of minerals during composting induced a decrease of carbon emission, likely due to the formation of organo-mineral associations or shift of microbial communities. Moreover, the use of co-compost as soil conditioner may allow to increase soil carbon storage, compared to a regular compost. Although the physico-chemical characteristics of the end-products were optimum for its use as potting media, no beneficial aspects on A.Thaliana growth has been observed. In presence of worms during co-composting, the carbon emissions were increased due to worm activities but the positive effect of minerals was still observed. In addition, worms improved the nutrient availability in the end products.

Therefore, co-vermicompost tended to improve soil properties and to enhance plant growth compared to a regular (vermi)compost.

Keywords : compost; worms; minerals; carbon; plant growth; soil; carbon storage; amendment; organic fertilizer; physico-chemical analyses; microscopic analyses.

Manuel Blouin et Safya Menasseri (Rapporteurs), Sylvie Derenne, Céline Pélosi et Sébastien Barot (examinateurs). La thèse a été dirigée par Marie-France Dignac et Cornelia Rumpel.