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24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

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Zone de texte éditable et éditée et rééditée


Complete list of papers 


Clairet C, Lapalu N, Simon A, Soyer JL, Viaud M, Zehraoui E, Dalmais B, Fudal I, Ponts N (2023) Nucleosome patterns in four plant pathogenic fungi with contrasted genome structures. Peer Community J., Volume 3 (e13).


Balesdent MH, Gautier A, Plissonneau C, Le Meur L, Loiseau A, Leflon M, Carpezat J, Pinochet X, Rouxel T (2022) Twenty years of Leptosphaeria maculans population surveys in France suggest pyramiding Rlm3 and Rlm7 in rapeseed is a risky resistance management strategy. Phytopathology 112:2126-2137.

Jiquel A, Gay EJ, Mas J, George P, Wagner A, Flor A, Faure S, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2022) “Late” effectors from Leptosphaeria maculans as tools for identifying novel sources of resistance in Brassica napus. Plant Direct e435

Lazar N, Mesarich CH, Petit-Houdenot Y, Talbi N, Li de la Sierra-Gallay I, Zélie E, Blondeau K, Gracy J, Ollivier B, Blaise F, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH, Idnurm A, van Tilbeurgh H, Fudal I (2022) A new family of structurally conserved fungal effectors displays epistatic interactions with plant resistance proteins. PLoS Pathog

Neik TX, Ghanbarnia K, Ollivier B, Scheben A, Severn-Ellis A, Larkan NJ, Haddadi P, Fernando WGD, Rouxel T, Batley J, Bohran H, Balesdent MH (2022). Two independent approaches converge to the cloning of a new Leptosphaeria maculans avirulence effector gene, AvrLmS-Lep2. Mol Plant Pathol

Saubin M, Louet C, Bousset L, Fabre F, Frey P, Fudal I, Grognard F, Hamelin F, Mailleret L, Stoeckel S, Touzeau S, Petre B, Halkett F (2022) Improving sustainable crop protection using population genetics concepts. Mol Ecol

Talbi N, Fokkens L, Audran C, Petit-Houdenot Y, Blaise F, Gay EJ, Gautier A, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH, Rep M, Fudal I (2022) The neighboring genes AvrLm10A and AvrLm10B are part of a large multigene family of cooperating effector genes conserved in Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes. BioRxiv doi:


Clairet C, Gay EJ,  Porquier A, Blaise F, Marais CL, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T,   Soyer JL, Fudal I (2021) Regulation of effector gene expression as concerted waves in Leptosphaeria maculans: a two-players game. BioRxiv doi:

Clairet C, Lapalu N, Simon A, Soyer JL, Viaud M, Zehraoui E, Dalmais B, Fudal I, Ponts N (2021) Nucleosome patterns in four plant pathogenic fungi with contrasted genome structures. BioRxiv doi:

Degrave A, Wagner M, George P, Coudard L, Pinochet X, Ermel M, Gay EJ, Fudal I, Moreno-Rico O, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH. (2021) A new avirulence gene of Leptosphaeria maculans, AvrLm14, identifies a resistance source in American broccoli (Brassica oleracea) genotypes. Mol Plant Pathol

Gay EJ, Soyer JL, Lapalu N, Linglin J, Fudal I, Da Silva C, Wincker P, Aury JM, Cruaud C, Levrel A, Lemoine J, Delourme R, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH (2021) Large-scale transcriptomics to dissect two years of the life of a fungal phytopathogen interacting with its host plant. BMC Biol 19: 55

Hannachi M, Coléno F, Bousset L, Delourme R, Chevre AM, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T, Multeau C, Garmendia-Auckenthaler L (2021) Vers une gestion des gènes de résistances comme des biens communs. In : Lannou C, Roby D, Ravigné V, Hannachi M, Moury B (Eds.). L'immunité des plantes. Pour des cultures résistantes aux maladies. Editions Quae, Versailles, France, 392 pp.

Jacques N, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T, Laval V (2021) New quantitative specific real-time PCR assays shed light on the epidemiology of two species of the Leptosphaeria maculans-Leptosphaeria biglobosa species complex. Plant Pathol 70:643-654

Jiquel A, Gervais J, Geistodt-Kiener A, Delourme R, Gay EJ, Ollivier B, Fudal I, Faure S, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2021) A gene-for-gene interaction involving a ‘late’ effector
contributes to quantitative resistance to the stem canker disease in Brassica napus. New Phytol https://doi: 10.1111/nph.17292

Rouxel T, Balesdent MH (2021) L’intégration des connaissances sur les résistances variétales par les acteurs de la sélection: un gage d’efficacité et de durabilité ? L’exemple du phoma du colza. In : Lannou C, Roby D, Ravigné V, Hannachi M, Moury B (Eds.). L'immunité des plantes. Pour des cultures résistantes aux maladies. Editions Quae, Versailles, France, 392 pp.

Rouxel T, Genin S, Viaud M (2021) Effecteurs des agents phytopathogènes: à la croisée des chemins entre manipulation et induction des réactions de défense des plantes. In : Lannou C, Roby D, Ravigné V, Hannachi M, Moury B (Eds.). L'immunité des plantes. Pour des cultures résistantes aux maladies. Editions Quae, Versailles, France, 392 pp.

Soyer JL, Clairet C, Gay EJ, Lapalu N, Rouxel T, Stukenbrock EH, Fudal I (2021). Genome-wide mapping of histone modifications in two species of Leptosphaeria maculans showing contrasting genomic organization and host specialization. Chromosome Res


Bruez E, Vallance J, Gautier A, Laval V, Compant S, Maurer W, Sessitsch A, Lebrun MH, Rey P (2020) Major changes in grapevine wood microbiota are associated with the onset of esca, a devastating trunk disease. Environ Microbiol https://doi:10.1111/1462-2920.15180

Gay EJ, Soyer JL, Lapalu N, Linglin J, Fudal I, Da Silva C, Wincker P, Aury JM, Cruaud C, Levrel A, Lemoine J, Delourme R, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH (2020) Large-scale transcriptomics to dissect two years of the life of a fungal phytopathogen interacting with its host plant. bioRxiv 2020 Nov 23; doi:

Jacques N, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T, Laval V (2020) New quantitative specific real-time PCR assays shed light on the epidemiology of two species of the Leptosphaeria maculans-Leptosphaeria biglobosa species complex. Plant Pathol (in press)

Kerdraon L, Barret M, Balesdent M, Suffert F, Laval V (2020) Impact of a resistance gene against a fungal pathogen on the plant host residue microbiome: the case of the Leptosphaeria maculans-Brassica napus pathosystem. Mol Plant Pathol (in press)

Leontovycova H, Trda L, Dobrev PI, Sasek V, Gay E, Balesdent MH, Burketova L (2020) Auxin biosynthesis in the phytopathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans is associated with enhanced transcription of indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase LmIPDC2 and tryptophan aminotransferase LmTAM1. Res Microbiol

Neik TX, Ghanbarnia K, Ollivier B, Scheben A, Severn-Ellis A, Larkan NJ, Haddadi P, Fernando WGD, Rouxel T, Batley J, Bohran H, Balesdent MH (2020). Two independent approaches converge to the cloning of a new Leptosphaeria maculans avirulence effector gene, AvrLmS-Lep2. BioRxiv 2020 October 3; 

Rocafort M, Fudal I, Mesarich CH (2020) Apoplastic effector proteins of plant-associated fungi and oomycetes. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 56: 9–19. 

Soyer JL, Clairet C, Gay EJ, Lapalu N, Rouxel T, Stukenbrock EH, Fudal I (2020). Genome-wide mapping of histone modifications in two species of Leptosphaeria maculans showing contrasting genomic organization and host specialization. bioRxiv. 2020 May 10; doi:


Balesdent MH, Coudard L, Pourcelot M, Leflon M, Delourme R, Faure S, Rouxel T (2019) Populations de phoma du colza : état des lieux des résistances, Phytoma 274 :30-34.

Boutigny A-L, Gautier A, Basler R, Dauthieux F, Leite S, Valade R, Aguayo J, Ioos R, Laval V (2019) Metabarcoding targeting the EF1 alpha region to assess Fusarium diversity on cereals. PLoS ONE 14: e0207988.

Dubois E, De Muyt A, Soyer JL, Budin K, Legras M, Piolot T, Debuchy R, Kleckner N, Zickler D, Espagne E (2019) Building bridges to move recombination complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 116:12400-12409.

Kerdraon L, Balesdent M-H, Barret M, Laval V, Suffert F (2019). Crop residues in wheat-oilseed rape rotation system: a pivotal, shifting platform for microbial meetings. Microbial Ecol. 4: 931-945.

Kerdraon L, Barret M, Laval V, Suffert F. (2019). Differential dynamics of microbial community networks help identify microorganisms interacting with residue-borne pathogens: the case of Zymoseptoria tritici in wheat. Microbiome 7: 125.          

Kerdraon L, Laval V, Suffert F. (2019). Microbiomes and pathogen survival in crop residues, an ecotone between plant and soil. Phytobiomes J. 3:246-255.

Möller M, Schotanus K, Soyer JL, Haueisen J, Happ K, Stralucke M, Happel P, Smith KM, Connolly LR, Freitag M, Stukenbrock EH (2019) Destabilization of chromosome structure by histone H3 lysine 27 methylation. PLoS Genet. 15:e1008093

Pauvert C, Buée M, Laval V, Edel-Hermann V, Fauchery L, Gautier A, Lesur I, Vallance J, Vacher C. (2019). Bioinformatics matters: the accuracy of plant and soil fungal community data is highly dependent on the metabarcoding pipeline, Fungal Ecol. 41: 23-33.

Petit-Houdenot Y, Degrave A, Meyer M, Blaise F, Ollivier B, Marais CL, Jauneau A, Audran C, Rivas S, Veneault-Fourrey C, Brun H, Rouxel T, Fudal I, Balesdent MH (2019). A two genes - for - one gene interaction between Leptosphaeria maculans and Brassica napus. New Phytol., 223: 397-411.

Soyer JL, Grandaubert J, Haueisen J, Schotanus K, Stukenbrock EH (2019) In planta chromatin immunoprecipitation in Zymoseptoria tritici reveals chromatin based regulation of putative effector gene expression. BioRXiv (



Dean RA, Rouxel T (2018) Editorial Overview: Effector biology in plant-associated fungi and Oomycetes: innovation and adaptation. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 46: (in press)

Dutreux F, Da Silva C, d'Agata L, Couloux A, Gay EJ, Istace B, Lapalu N, Lemainque A, Linglin J, Noel B, Wincker P, Cruaud C, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH, Aury JM (2018) De novo assembly and annotation of three Leptosphaeria genomes using Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing. Scientific data 5:180235

Fouché S, Plissonneau C, Croll D (2018) The birth and death of effectors in rapidly evolving filamentous plant genomes. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 46: 34-42

Fudal I, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2018) Effector biology in fungal pathogens of non-model crop plants. Trends Plant Sci. 23:753-755

Meile L, Croll D, Brunner PC, Plissonneau C, Hartmann FE, McDonald BA, Sanchez-Vallet A (2018) A fungal avirulence factor encoded in a highly plastic genomic region triggers partial resistance to septoria tritici blotch. New Phytol. 219: 1048–1061. 

Petit-Houdenot Y, Fudal I (2017) Complex interactions between fungal avirulence genes and their corresponding plant resistance genes and consequences for disease resistance management. Front. Plant Sci. 8: 1072

Plissonneau C, Hartmann FE, Croll D (2018) Pangenome analyses of the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici reveal the structural basis of a highly plastic eukaryotic genome. BMC Biology 16: 5

Plissonneau C, Rouxel T, Chèvre AM, Van de Wouw AP, Balesdent MH (2018) One gene-one name: the AvrLmJ1 avirulence gene of Leptosphaeria maculans is AvrLm5. Mol. Plant Pathol. 19: 1012-1018

Sánchez-Vallet A, Fouché S, Fudal I, Hartmann FE, Soyer JL, Tellier A, Croll D (2018) The genome biology of effector gene evolution in filamentous plant pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol 56: 21-40

Soyer JL, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T, Dean R (2018) To B or not to B: a tale of unorthodox chromosomes. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 46: 50-57


Gervais J, Plissonneau C, Linglin J, Meyer M, Labadie K, Cruaud C, Fudal I, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH (2017) Different waves of effector genes with contrasted genomic location are expressed by Leptosphaeria maculans during cotyledon and stem colonisation of oilseed rape. Mol. Plant Pathol. 18: 1113-1126 [DOI]

Lorrain C, Gervais J, Petit Y, Plett JM (2017) New insights into plant-microbe interactions through advances in fungal genetics. New Phytol. 216: 647-650

Meyer M, Bourras S, Gervais J, Labadie K, Cruaud C, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2017) Impact of biotic and abiotic factors on the expression of fungal effector-encoding genes in axenic growth conditions. Fungal Genet. Biol. 99: 1-12 [DOI]

Plissonneau C, Blaise F, Ollivier B, Leflon M, Carpezat J, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH (2017) Unusual evolutionary mechanisms to escape Effector-Triggered-Immunity in the fungal phytopathogen Leptosphaeria maculans. Mol. Ecol. 26: 2183-2198

Plissonneau C, Benevenuto J, Mohd-Assaad N, Fouché S, Hartmann FE, Croll D (2017) Using population and comparative genomics to understand the genetic basis of effector-driven fungal pathogen evolution. Front. Plant Sci. 8:119 [DOI]

Rouxel T, Balesdent MH (2017) Life, death and rebirth of avirulence effectors in a fungal pathogen of Brassica crops, Leptosphaeria maculans. New Phytol. 214: 526-532[DOI]

Zhong Z, Marcel T, Hartmann FE, Ma X, Plissonneau C, Zala M, Ducasse A, Compain J, Lapalu N, Amselem J, McDonald BA, Croll D, Palma-Guerrero J. (2017) A small secreted protein in Zymoseptoria tritici is responsible for avirulence on wheat cultivars carrying the Stb6 resistance gene. New Phytol.214: 619-631


de Marchi R, Sorel M, Mooney B, Fudal I, Goslin K, Kwasniewska K, Ryan PT, Pfalz M, Kroymann J, Pollmann S, Feechan A, Wellmer F, Rivas S, Graciet E (2016) The N-end rule pathway regulates pathogen responses in plants. Scientific Rep. 6. [DOI

Nováková M, Šašek V, Trdá L, Krutinová H, Mongin T, Valentová O, Balesdent M-H, Rouxel T, Burketová L (2016) Leptosphaeria maculans effector AvrLm4-7 affects SA- and ET-signalling and H2O2 accumulation in Brassica napus. Mol. Plant Pathol. 17: 818-831.

Plissonneau C, Daverdin G, Ollivier B, Blaise F, Degrave A, Fudal I, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH (2016) A game of hide and seek between avirulence genes AvrLm4-7 and AvrLm3 in Leptosphaeria maculans. New Phytol. 209: 1613-1624.

Plissonneau C, Stürchler A, Croll D (2016) The evolution of orphan regions in genomes of a fungal pathogen of wheat. mBio 7: e01231-16 [DOI]

Zhang  X, Peng P, Kutcher R, Balesdent MH, Delourme R, Fernando DWG. (2016). Breakdown of Rlm3 resistance in the Brassica napus–Leptosphaeria maculans pathosystem in western Canada. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 145: 659–674 [DOI]


Balesdent MH, Plissonneau C, Coudard L, Daverdin G, Le Meur L, Carpezat J, Leflon M, Pinochet X, Ermel M, Brun H, Rouxel T (2015) Résistance du colza au phoma : où en est-on de l'efficacité de Rlm7 ? Phytoma 684: 20-24.

Blondeau K, Blaise F, Graille M, Kale SD, Linglin J, Ollivier B, Labarde A, Lazar N, Daverdin G, Balesdent MH, Choi DHY, Tyler BM, Rouxel T, van Tilbeurgh H, Fudal I (2015) Crystal structure of the effector AvrLm4–7 of Leptosphaeria maculans reveals insights into its translocation into plant cells and recognition by resistance proteins. Plant J. 83: 610-624.

Bourras S, Meyer M, Rouxel T (2015) Agrobacterium tumefaciens gene transfer: how a plant pathogen hacks the nuclei of plant and non-plant organisms. Phytopathology 105: 1288-1301.

Diederichsen E, Dixon GR, Wallenhammar AC, Fernando D, Balesdent MH (2016) Special issue on clubroot and blackleg diseases of brassicas - Foreword. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 145: 515-516

Ghanbarnia K, Fudal I, Larkan NJ, Links MG, Balesdent M-H, Profotova B, Fernando WGD, Rouxel T, Borhan MH (2015) Rapid identification of the Leptosphaeria maculans avirulence gene AvrLm2, using an intraspecific comparative genomics approach. Mol. Plant Pathol. 16: 699-709.

Plissonneau C, Daverdin G, Coudard L, Ollivier B, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH (2015) Phoma du colza : recyclage du gène de résistance Rlm3. Phytoma 684: 25-28.

Schotanus K, Soyer JL, Connolly LR, Grandaubert J, Happel P, Smith KM, Freitag M, Stukenbrock EH (2015) Histone modifications rather than the novel regional centromeres of Zymoseptoria tritici distinguish core and accessory chromosomes. Epigenetics Chromatin 8: 41. doi: 10.1186/s13072-015-0033-5.

Soyer JL, Hamiot A, Ollivier B, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T, Fudal I (2015) The APSES transcription factor LmStuA is required for sporulation, pathogenic development and effector gene expression in Leptosphaeria maculans. Mol. Plant Pathol. 16: 1000-1005.

Soyer JL, Möller M, Schotanus K, Connolly L, Galazka JM, Freitag M, Stukenbrock E (2015) Chromatin analyses of Zymoseptoria tritici: methods for chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq). Fungal Genet. Biol. 79: 63-70.

Soyer JL, Rouxel T, Fudal I (2015) Chromatin-based control of effector gene expression in plant-associated fungi. Curr. Op. Plant Biol. 26: 51–56


Carpezat, J, Bothorel S, Daverdin G, Balesdent MH, Leflon M (2014) Use of high resolution melting analysis to genotype the avirulence AvrLm4-7 gene of Leptosphaeria maculans, a fungal pathogen of Brassica napus.  Ann. Appli. Biol. 164 :430–44.

Delourme R, Bousset L, Ermel E, Duffé P, Besnard AL, Marquer B, Fudal I, Linglin J, Chadoeuf J, Brun H (2014) Quantitative resistance affects the speed of frequency increase but not the diversity of the virulence alleles overcoming a major resistance gene to Leptosphaeria maculans in oilseed rape. Infect. Genet. Evol. 27: 490–499.

Grandaubert J, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2014) Evolutionary and adaptive role of transposable elements in fungal genomes. In Francis Martin, editor: Fungi, Vol 70, Ann. Bot. Res., UK: Academic Press, pp. 79-107.

Grandaubert J, Lowe RGT, Soyer JL, Schoch CL, Van de Wouw AP, Fudal I, Robbertse B, Lapalu N, Links MG, Ollivier B, Linglin J, Barbe V, Mangenot S, Cruaud C, Borhan H, Howlett BJ, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2014) Transposable element-assisted evolution and adaptation to host plant within the Leptosphaeria maculans-Leptosphaeria biglobosa species complex of fungal pathogens. BMC Genomics 15: 891.

Lowe RGT, Cassin A, Grandaubert J, Clark B, Van de Wouw AP, Rouxel T, Howlett BJ (2014) Genomes and transcriptomes of partners in plant-fungal- interactions between canola (Brassica napus) and two Leptosphaeria species. PLoS One 9: e103098.

Soyer JL, El Ghalid M, Glaser N, Ollivier B, Linglin J, Grandaubert J, Balesdent MH, Connolly LR, Freitag M, Rouxel T, Fudal I (2014) Epigenetic control of effector gene expression in the plant pathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans. PLoS Genet. 10: e1004227.


Balesdent MH, Fudal I, Ollivier B, Bally P, Grandaubert J, Eber F, Chèvre AM, Leflon M, Rouxel T (2013). The dispensable chromosome of Leptosphaeria maculans shelters an effector gene conferring avirulence toward Brassica rapa. New Phytol. 198: 887-898.

Dilmaghani A, Gout L, Moreno-Rico O, Dias JS, Coudard L, Castillo-Torres N, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2013) Clonal populations of Leptosphaeria maculans contaminating cabbage in Mexico. Plant Pathol.  62: 520-532

Godinho JS, Dias JS, Balesdent MH, and Mendes-Pereira E (2013) Molecular characterisation of Portuguese isolates of Leptosphaeria maculans using PCR-ISSR and RAPD markers. Acta Horticulturae 1005: 573-580.

Grandaubert J, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2013). Incidence des Eléments Transposables sur l’évolution des génomes des champignons phytopathogènes et sur leur potentiel adaptatif. Biol Auj. 207:277-290

Rouxel T & Balesdent MH (2013) From model to crop plant-pathogen interactions: cloning of the first resistance gene to Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus. New Phytol. 197:356-358 (Invited commentary).

Tyler BM, Kale SD, Wang Q, Tao K, Clark HR, Drews K, Antignani V, Rumore A, Hayes T, Plett JM, Fudal I, Gu B, Chen Q, Affeldt KJ, Berthier E, Fischer GJ, Dou D, Shan W, Keller N, Martin F, Rouxel T, Lawrence CB (2013). Microbe-independent entry of oomycete RxLR effectors and fungal RxLR-like effectors into plant and animal cells is specific and reproducible. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 26: 611-616.

Tyler BM & Rouxel T (2013) Effectors of fungi and oomycetes: their virulence and avirulence functions, and translocation from pathogen to host cells. In Molecular Plant Immunity. G. Sessa, Ed., Wiley Blackwell Press, Chap. 7, pp. 123-167.


Bourras S, Meyer M, Grandaubert J, Lapalu N, Fudal I, Linglin J, Ollivier B, Blaise F, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2012) The incidence of genome structure, DNA asymmetry and cell physiology on T-DNA integration in chromosomes of the phytopathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans. G3 2:891-904.

Daverdin G, Rouxel T, Gout L, Aubertot JN, Fudal I, Meyer M, Parlange F, Carpezat J, Balesdent MH (2012) Genome structure and reproductive behaviour influence the evolutionary potential of a fungal phytopathogen. PLoS Pathog. 8: e1003020.

Dilmaghani A*, Gladieux P*, Gout L, Giraud T Brunner P, Stachowiak A, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2012) Migration patterns and changes in population biology associated with the worldwide spread of the oilseed rape pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans. Mol. Ecol. 21:2519-2533


Rouxel T, De Wit PJGM (2011) Dothideomycete effectors facilitating biotrophic and necrotrophic life styles. In: Effectors in Plant-Microbe Interactions. F. Martin and S. Kamoun, Eds. Wiley Blackwell Press

Rouxel T, Grandaubert J, Hane JK, Hoede C, Van de Wouw AP, Couloux A, Dominguez V, Anthouard V, Bally P, Bourras S, Cozijnsen AJ, Cuifetti LM, Degrave A, Dilmaghani A, Duret L, Fudal I, Goodwin SB, Gout L, Glaser N, Linglin J, Kema GHJ, Lapalu N, Lawrence CB, May K, Meyer M, Ollivier B, Poulain J, Schoch CL, Simon A, Spatafora JW, Stachowiak A, T urgeon BG, Tyler BM, Vincent D, Weissenbach J, Amselem J, Quesneville H, Oliver RP, Wincker P, Balesdent MH, Howlett BJ (2011) Effector diversification within compartments of the Leptosphaeria maculans genome affected by repeat-induced point mutations. Nat. Commun. 2:202. [DOI]


Bally P, Grandaubert J, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH (2010) FONZIE: an optimized pipeline for minisatellite marker discovery and primer design from large sequence data sets. BMC Res. Notes 3:322

Dilmaghani A, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T, Moreno-Rico O (2010) First report of Leptosphaeria biglobosa (Blackleg) on Brassica oleracea (Cabbage) in Mexico. Plant Dis. 94:791. [DOI]

Huang YJ, Balesdent MH, Li ZQ, Evans N, Rouxel T, Fitt BDL (2010) Fitness cost of virulence differs between the AvrLm1 and AvrLm4 loci in Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker of oilseed rape). Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 126:279-291. [DOI]

Kale SD, Gu B, Capelluto DGS, Dou D, Feldman E, Rumore A, D. Arredondo FD, Hanlon R, Fudal I, Rouxel T, Lawrence CB, Shan W, Tyler BM (2010) External lipid PI-3-P mediates entry of eukaryotic pathogen effectors into plant and animal host cells. Cell 142:284-295. [DOI]

Kutcher HR, Balesdent MH, Rimmer SR, Rouxel T, Chèvre AM, Delourme R, Brun H (2010) Frequency of avirulence genes in Leptosphaeria maculans in western Canada. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 32:77-85. [DOI]

Hane JK, Rouxel T, Howlett BJ, Kema GHJ, Goodwin SB, Oliver RP (2011) A novel mode of chromosomal evolution peculiar to filamentous Ascomycete fungi. Genome Biol. 12:R45.

Rouxel T, Balesdent MH (2010) Avirulence genes. In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (ELS). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester.[DOI]


Cardin L, Vincenot L, Balesdent MH (2009). First report of Pilidium concavum on Bergenia crassifolia in France. Plant Dis. 93: 548.

Dilmaghani A, Balesdent MH, Didier JP, Wu C, Davey J, Barbetti MJ, Hua Li, Moreno-Rico O, Phillips D, Despeghel JP, Vincenot L, Gout L, Rouxel T (2009) The Leptosphaeria maculans-Leptosphaeria biglobosa species complex in the American continent. Plant Pathol. 58:1044-1058. [DOI]

Fudal I, Ross S, Brun H, Besnard AL, Ermel M, Kuhn ML, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2009). Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) as an alternative mechanism of evolution towards virulence in Leptosphaeria maculans. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 22:932-941

Parlange F, Daverdin G, Fudal I, Kuhn ML, Balesdent MH, Blaise F, Grezes-Besset B, Rouxel T (2009) Leptosphaeria maculans avirulence gene AvrLm4-7 confers a dual recognition specificity by the Rlm4 and Rlm7 resistance genes of oilseed rape, and circumvents Rlm4-mediated recognition through a single amino acid change. Mol. Microbiol. 71:851-863. [DOI]

Remy E, Meyer M, Blaise F, Simon UK, Kuhn D, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2009) A key enzyme of the Leloir pathway is involved in pathogenicity of Leptosphaeria maculans towards oilseed rape. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 22:725-736.

Rouxel T, Duplessis S, Viaud M, Amselem J, Lebrun MH (2009) La génomique fongique. Biofutur 296:31-35.

Van de Wouw AP, Marcroft SJ, Barbetti MJ, Li H, Salisbury PA, Gout L, Rouxel T, Howlett BJ, Balesdent MH (2009) Dual control of avirulence in Leptosphaeria maculans towards a Brassica napus cultivar with ‘sylvestris-derived’ resistance, suggests involement of two resistance genes. Plant Pathol. 58:305-313. [DOI]

Vincent D, Balesdent MH, Gibon J, Claverol S, Lapaillerie D, Lomenech AM, Blaise F, Rouxel T, Martin F, Bonneu M, Amselem J, Dominguez V, Howlett BJ, Wincker P, Joets J, Lebrun MH, Plomion C (2009) Hunting down fungal secretomes using liquid-phase IEF prior to high resolution 2-DE. Electrophoresis 30:4118-4136. [DOI]


Remy E, Meyer M, Blaise F, Chabirand M, Wolff N, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2008) The Lmpma1 gene of Leptosphaeria maculans encodes a plasma membrane H+-ATPase isoform essential for pathogenicity towards oilseed rape. Fungal Genet. Biol. 45:1122-1134. [DOI]

Remy E, Meyer M, Blaise F, Simon UK, Kuhn D, Chabirand M, Riquelme M, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2008) The Lmgpi15 gene, encoding a component of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis pathway, is required for morphogenesis and pathogenicity in Leptosphaeria maculans. New Phytol. 179:1105-1120. [DOI]

Vincenot L, Balesdent MH, Li H, Barbetti MJ, Sivasithamparam S, Gout L, Rouxel T (2008) Occurrence of a new subclade of Leptosphaeria biglobosa in Western Australia. Phytopathology 98:321-329. [DOI]


Fudal I, Ross S, Gout L, Blaise F, Kuhn ML, Eckert MR, Cattolico L, Bernard-Samain S, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2007). Heterochromatin-like regions as ecological niches for avirulence genes in the Leptosphaeria maculans genome: map-based cloning of AvrLm6. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 20:459-470.

Gout L, Kuhn ML, Vincenot L, Bernard-Samain S, Cattolico L, Barbetti M, Moreno-Rico O, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2007) Genome structure impacts molecular evolution at the AvrLm1 avirulence locus of the plant pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans. Environ. Microbiol. 9:2978-2992.

Leflon M, Brun H, Eber F, Delourme R, Lucas M, Vallee P, Ermel M, Balesdent MH, Chevre, AM (2007). Detection, introgression and localization of genes conferring specific resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans from Brassica rapa into B. napus. Theor. Appl. Genet. 115:897-906.


Balesdent MH, Louvard K, Pinochet X, Rouxel T (2006) A large-scale survey of races of Leptosphaeriamaculans occurring on oilseed rape in France. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 114:53-65.

Blaise F, Remy E, Meyer M, Zhou L, Narcy JP, Roux J, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2006). A critical assessment of Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated transformation as a tool for pathogenicity gene discovery in the phytopathogenic fungus Leptosphaeriamaculans.FungalGenet.Biol. 44:123-138.

Delourme R, Chèvre AM, Brun H, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH, Dias JS, Salisbury P, Renard M, Rimmer SR (2006) Major gene and polygenic resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 114:41-52.

Evans N, Fitt BDL, van den Bosch F, Huang Y, Pietravalle S, Eckert M, Papastamati K, Demon I, Karolewski Z, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH, Fudal I, Gout L, Brun H, Andrivon D, Bousset L, Gladders P, Pinochet X, Penaud A, Jedryczka M, Kachlicki P, Stachowiak A, Olechnowicz J, Podlesna A, Happstadius I, Meyer J (2006). SECURE - stem canker of oilseed rape: molecular methods and mathematical modeling to deploy durable resistance (QLK5-CT-2002-01813). Bull. OILB/SROP 29:43-48.

Gout L, Eckert M, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH (2006) Genetic variability and distribution of mating-type alleles in field populations of Leptosphaeria maculans from France. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:185-191.

Gout L, Fudal I, Kuhn ML, Blaise F, Eckert M, Cattolico L, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2006) Lost in the middle of nowhere: the AvrLm1 avirulence gene of the Dothideomycete Leptosphaeria maculans. Mol. Microbiol. 60 :67-80.

Howlett BJ, Gardiner DM, Cozijnsen AJ, Wilson LM, Cattolico L, Pedras SMC, Rouxel T, Attard A, Gout L, Parlange F, Ross S, Balesdent MH (2006). Sequence analysis of two genomic regions of  Leptosphaeria maculans, the fungus that causes blackleg disease (Phoma stem canker) of Brassica napus. Acta Horticulturae 706:55-62.

Huang YJ, Li ZQ, Evans N, Rouxel T, Fitt BDL, Balesdent MH (2006) Fitness cost associated with loss of the AvrLm4 avirulence function in Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker of oilseed rape). Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 114 :77-89.

Kuhn ML, Gout L, Howlett BJ, Melayah D, Meyer M, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2006) Genetic linkage maps and genomic organization in Leptosphaeria maculans. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 114 :17-31.

Sprague SJ, Balesdent MH, Brun H, Hayden HL, Marcroft SJ, Pinochet X, Rouxel T, Howlett BJ (2006) Major gene resistance in Brassica napus (oilseed rape) is overcome by changes in virulence of populations of Leptosphaeria maculans in France and Australia. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 114 :33-40.

Stachowiak A, Olechnowicz J, Jedryczka M, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH, Happstadius I, Gladders P, Latunde-Dada A, Evans N (2006) Frequency of avirulence alleles in field populations of Leptosphaeria maculans in Europe. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 114:67-75.

Sustainable strategies for managing Brassica napus (oilseed rape) resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans (Phoma stem canker). (2006) B.D.L. Fitt, N. Evans, B.J. Howlett & B.M. Cooke (Eds.), Springer, The Netherlands, 126 pp.


Attard A, Gout L, Ross S, Parlange F, Cattolico L, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2005) Truncated and RIP-degenerated copies of the LTR retrotransposon Pholy are clustered in a pericentromeric region of the Leptosphaeria maculans genome. FungalGenet.Biol. 42:30-41.

Balesdent MH, Barbetti MJ, Hua Li, Sivasithamparam K, Gout L, Rouxel T (2005) Analysis of Leptosphaeria maculans race structure in a worldwide collection of isolates. Phytopathology 95:1061-107.

Eckert M, Gout L, Rouxel T, Blaise F, Jedryczka M, Fitt BDL, Balesdent MH (2005) Identification and characterisation of polymorphic minisatellites in the phytopathogenic ascomycete Leptosphaeria maculans. Curr.Genet. 47 :37-48.

Rouxel T, Balesdent MH (2005) The stem canker (blackleg) fungus, Leptosphaeriamaculans, enters the genomic era. Mol. Plant Pathol. 6:225-241.


Delourme R, Pilet-Nayel ML, Archipiano M, Horvais R, Tanguy X, Rouxel T, Brun H, Renard M, Balesdent MH (2004) A cluster of major specific resistance genes to Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus. Phytopathology 94 :578-583.

Rouxel T, Mendes-Pereira E, Brun H, Balesdent MH (2004) Species complex of fungal phytopathogens: the Leptosphaeria maculans-L. biglobosa case study. In: Plant Genome: Biodiversity and Evolution. Vol. 2: Cryptogams. A.K. Sharma & A. Sharma (Eds.), Science Publishers, Inc., Enfield, USA, pp. 33–75.


Mendes-Pereira E, Balesdent MH, Brun H, Rouxel T (2003). Molecular phylogeny of the Leptosphaeria maculans-L. biglobosa species complex. Mycol. Res. 107:1287-1304.

Penaud A, Rouxel T, Gout L, Balesdent MH (2003). L’évolution des souches de Phoma et le contournement des résistances. Oléoscope 73: 12-15

Pinochet X, Mestries E, Penaud A, Delourme R, Chèvre AM, Renard M, Brun H, Bousset L, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T, Aubertot JN (2003). Towards a durable management of genetic resistances to Leptosphaeria maculans. OCL 10 :208-211.

Rouxel T, Penaud A, Pinochet X, Brun H, Gout L, Delourme R, Schmit J, Balesdent MH (2003). A ten-year survey of populations of Leptosphaeria maculans in France indicates a rapid adaptation towards the Rlm1 resistance gene in oilseed rape. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 109:871-881.

Rouxel T, Willner E, Coudard L, Balesdent MH (2003) Screening and identification of resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus accessions. Euphytica 133 :219-231


Attard A, Gout L, Gourgues M, Khun ML, Schmit J, Laroche S, Ansan-Melayah D, Billault A, Cattolico L, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2002) Analysis of molecular markers genetically linked to the Leptosphaeria maculans avirulence gene AvrLm1 in field populations indicates a highly conserved event leading to virulence on Rlm1 genotypes. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact. 15:672-682.

Balesdent MH, Attard A, Kuhn ML, Rouxel T (2002) New avirulence genes in the phytopathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans. Phytopathology 92:1122-1133.

Schmit J, West JS, Narcy JP, Roux J, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T, GOUT L. (2002). La nécrose du collet du colza: analyse de la distribution du champignon dans la plante à l'aide d'outils moléculaires. OCL 9:79-85.

West JS, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T, Narcy JP, Huang YJ, Roux J, Steed JM, Fitt BDL, Schmit J (2002). Colonisation of winter oilseed rape tissues by A/Tox+ and B/Tox0 Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker) in France and England. Plant Pathol. 51:311-321.

West JS, Fitt BDL, Leech PK, Biddulph JE, Huang YJ, Balesdent MH (2002) Timing of Leptosphaeria maculans ascospore release, phoma leaf spot development and fungicide use in relation to stem canker development on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in southern England. Plant Pathol. 51:454-463.


Attard A, Gourgues M, Gout L, Schmit J, Roux J, Narcy JP, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (2001). Molecular characterisation and polymorphism of MinLm1, a minisatellite from the phytopathogenic ascomycete Leptosphaeria maculans. Curr. Genet. 40:54-64.

Balesdent MH, Attard A, Ansan-Melayah D, Delourme R, Renard M, Rouxel T (2001). Genetic control and host range of avirulence toward Brassica napus cultivars Quinta and Jet Neuf in Leptosphaeria maculans. Phytopathology 21:70-76.

Huang YJ, Toscano-Underwood C, Fitt BDL, Todd AD, West JS, Koopmann B, Balesdent MH (2001). Effects of temperature on germination and hyphal growth from ascospores of A-group and B-group Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker of oilseed rape). Ann. Appl. Biol. 139:193:207.

2000 and before

Jedryczka M, Fitt BDL, Kachlicki P, E. Lewartowska E, Balesdent MH, Rouxel T (1999). Comparison between Polish and United Kingdom populations of Leptosphaeria maculans, cause of stem canker of winter oilseed rape. Z. Pflanzenkrank. Pflanzenschutz 106: 608-617.

Jedryczka M, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH (1999). REP-PCR based genomic fingerprinting of isolates of Leptosphaeria maculans from Poland. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 105:813-823.

Ansan-Melayah D, Balesdent MH, Delourme R, Pilet ML, Renard M, Tanguy X, Rouxel T (1998). Genes for race-specific resistance against blackleg disease in Brassica napus L. Plant Breed. 117:373-378.

Balesdent MH, Jedryczka M, Jain L, Mendes-Pereira E, Bertrandy J, Rouxel T (1998). Conidia as a substrate for internal transcribed spacer-based PCR identification of components of the Leptosphaeria maculans species complex. Phytopathology 88:1210-1217.

Ansan-Melayah D, Rouxel T, Bertrandy J, Letarnec B, Mendes-Pereira E, Balesdent MH (1997). Field efficiency of Brassica napus specific resistance correlates Leptosphaeria maculans population structure. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 103:835-841.

Ansan-Melayah D, Balesdent MH, Bertrandy J, Letarnec B, Mendes-Pereira E, Rouxel T (1997). Phoma du colza. Des résistances spécifiques exploitables chez le colza. Phytoma 490, 26-29.

Leclair S, Ansan-Melayah D, Rouxel T, Balesdent MH (1996). Meiotic behaviour of the minichromosome in the phytopathogenic ascomycete Leptosphaeria maculans. Curr. Genet. 30:541-548.

Gall C, Balesdent MH, Desthieux I, Robin P, Rouxel T (1995). Polymorphism of Tox0 Leptosphaeria maculans isolates as revealed by soluble protein and isozyme electrophoresis. Mycol. Res. 99: 221-229.

Balesdent MH, Desthieux I, Gall C, Robin P, Rouxel T (1995). Quantification of Leptosphaeria maculans growth in cotyledons of Brassica napus using ELISA. J. Phytopathol. 143:65-73.

Ansan-Melayah D, Balesdent MH, Buèe M, Rouxel T (1995). Genetic characterization of AvrLm1, the first avirulence gene of Leptosphaeria maculans. Phytopathology 85:1525-1529.

Gall C, Balesdent MH, Robin P, Rouxel T (1994). Tetrad analysis of acid phosphatase, soluble protein patterns and mating type in Leptosphaeria maculans. Phytopathology 84:1299-1305.

Rouxel T, Gall C, Balesdent MH (1994). Du polymorphisme au complexe d'espèces: combien d'agents pathogènes sont impliqués dans la nécrose du collet du colza? Agronomie 14:413-432.