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24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

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Frédéric Suffert

photo perso Frédéric Suffert

Senior researcher  |  Eng Agr, PhD, HDR




Campus Agro Paris-Saclay, 22 place de l’Agronomie, 91120 Palaiseau, FR  |  Visiting me

E-mail  frederic.suffert(a)  |  Twitter @wheatpath  |  Tel +33 (0)1 89 10 13 32


I am plant disease epidemiologist for INRAE, the French National Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment. I hold an engineering diploma in agronomy specialized in Crop Protection, a PhD in plant pathology from ENSAR (Institut Agro Rennes-Angers), and a HDR. From 2000 to 2007 I worked at INRAE Rennes (IGEPP) on the epidemiology of soil-borne diseases (carrot cavity spot). I work in the BIOGER research unit located on the Campus Agro Paris-Saclay at Palaiseau. I co-lead the group Epidemiology and evolution of fungal wheat pathogens. I conduct research on the epidemiology of wheat septoria (Zymoseptoria tritici), a topic on which I have supervised several PhD candidates. I am interested in the processes underlying the disease development, drivers, and consequences of Z. tritici sexual reproduction (fungal biology, ecology of residues as source of primary inoculum, etc.), and adaptative dynamics of pathogen populations (virulence and agressiveness patterns) in heterogeneous environments (deployment of resistances in cultivar mixtures, seasonal variations of temperature and moisture conditions, etc.). I graduated from the French Institute for Higher National Defence Studies (IHEDN) and I address cindynic issues applied to epidemiosurveillance and crop biosecurity for governmental agencies (see C&Aw pages for a complete agroterrosim horizon scanning). I am member of the ANSES expert committee Biological Risks to Plant Health and participates occasionally in expertise activities for INRAE (e.g. ESCo INRAE RegulNat on the use of plant cover diversification to control pests). I am member of the scientific council of the INRAE Plant Heath division (SPE) and member of the steering committee of the international health monitoring (VSI) for the French plateform for Epidemiosurveillance in Plant Health (ESV). I am member of the board of the French Phytopathological Society (SFP), member of the Association of Naturalists of the Yvelines (ANY), and associate editor for Journal of Plant Pathology.



Bourgeois TP, Suffert F, Durya G, Biaua G, Lacoste S, Prado S, Dupont J, Salmon S. 2023. Dietary preferences of Heteromurus nitidus (Collembola) among wheat fungal communities: implications for bioregulation of two widespread pathogens. Applied Soil Ecology, in press.

Feurtey A, Lorrain C, McDonald MC, Milgate A, Solomon P, Warren R, Puccetti G, Scalliet G, Torriani S, Gout L, Marcel T, Suffert F, Alassimone J, Lipzen A, Yoshinaga Y, Daum C, Barry K, Grigoriev I, Goodwin SB, Genissel A, Seidl MF, Stukenbrock EH, Lebrun M-H, Kema G, McDonald BA, Croll D. 2023. A thousand-genome panel retraces the global spread and climatic adaptation of a major fungal crop pathogen. Nature Communications 14: 1059 [pdf]

Fontyn C, Meyer K, Boixel A-L, Delestre G, Piaget E, Picard C, Suffert F,  Marcel TC,  Goyeau H. 2023. Evolution within a given virulence phenotype (pathotype) is driven by changes in aggressiveness: a case study of French wheat leaf rust populations. bioRxiv / PCI Infections, in revision [pdf]

Karisto P, Suffert F, Mikaberidze A. 2023. Spatially-explicit modeling improves empirical characterization of dispersal. Plant Environment-Interactions, accepted [pdf]

Langlands-Perry C, Pitarch A, Lapalu N, Bergez C, Cuenin M, Gélisse S, Barrachina C, Parrinello H, Suffert F, Valade R, Marcel TC. 2023. Quantitative and qualitative plant-pathogen interactions call upon similar pathogenicity genes with a spectrum of effects. Frontiers in Plant Science, in revision.

Sarthou J-P, Sester M, Lamichhane J-R, Aubertot J-N, Sarthou V, Suffert F. 2023. Effet des pratiques d’ACS sur les maladies et leurs conséquences sur l’état sanitaire des cultures. In: L’agriculture de conservation des sols, Cordeau S, Maron PA, Sarthou JP, Chauvel B (Eds), Quae Editions, in press.

Suffert F (coord.), Coleno F, Sache I, Barbier M, Prete G, Forget-Richard F, Oswald I, Smith I, Suffert M, Chatot C. 2023. Science, savoirs et société : produire et utiliser des connaissances en phytopathologie pour mieux évaluer et gérer les risques biologiques pour la santé des végétaux (chapitre VI). In: Phytopathologie, seconde édition, Reignault P, Sache I, Choquer M, Corio-Coster MF, Dellagi A, Suffert F (eds.), De Boeck Supérieur, in press.


Tibi A (coord.), Martinet V (coord.), Vialatte A (coord.), Alignier A, Angeon V, Bohan DA, Bougherara D, Cordeau S, Courtois P, Deguine J-P, Enjalbert J, Fabre F, Fréville H, Grateau R, Grimonprez B, Gross N, Hannachi M, Launay M, Lelièvre V., Lemarié S, Martel G, Navarrete M, Plantegenest M, Ravigné V., Rusch A, Suffert F, Thoyer S. 2022. Protéger les cultures en augmentant la diversité végétale des espaces agricoles. ESCo report synthesis. INRAE, 86 p. [pdf]

Fontyn C, Zippert A-C, Delestre G, Marcel TC, Suffert F, Goyeau H. 2022. Is virulence phenotype evolution driven exclusively by Lr gene deployment in French Puccinia triticina populations? Plant Pathology 71: 1511-1524 [pdf]

Karisto P, Suffert F, Mikaberidze A. 2022. Measuring splash-dispersal of a major wheat pathogen in the field. PhytoFrontiers, 2: 30-40 [pdf]

Lapalu N, Simon A, Demenou B, Paumier D, Guillot M-P, Gout L, Suffert F, Valade R. 2022. Complete genome sequences of Septoria linicola: a resource for studying a damaging flax pathogen. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions [pdf]


Rodriguez-Algaba J, Hovmøller MS, Schulz P, Hansen JG, Lezaun JA, Joaquim J, Randazzo B, Czembor P, Zemeca L, Slikova S, Hanzalová A, Holdgate S, Wilderspin S, Mascher F, Suffert F, Leconte M, Flath K, Justesen AF. 2022. Stem rust on barberry species in Europe: Host specificities and genetic diversity. Frontiers in Genetics 13: 988031 [pdf]


Barroso-Bergadà D, Massot M, Vignolles N, Faivre d’Arcier J, Chancerel E, Guichoux E, Walker A-S, Vacher C, Bohan DA, Laval V, Suffert F. 2022. Metagenomic next⁃generation sequencing (mNGS) data reveals the phyllosphere microbiome of wheat plants infected by the fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria triticiPhytobiomes Journal, in press [pdf]


McDonald BA, Suffert F, Bernasconi A, Mikaberidze A. 2022. How large and diverse are field populations of fungal plant pathogens? The case of Zymoseptoria triticiEvolutionary Applications 15: 1360-1373 [pdf]


Bernard F, Chelle M, Riahi El Kamel O, Pincebourde S, Sache I, Suffert F. 2022. Daily fluctuations in leaf temperature modulate the development of a foliar pathogen. Agricultural Forest Meteorology 322: 109031 [pdf]


Valade R, Boixel A-L, Meyer K, Suffert F. 2022. 2021, l’odyssée de l’espèce Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici : retour sur une année exceptionnelle qui pose la question de l’endémicité de la rouille noire du blé en France et incite à maintenir l’effort d’épidémiosurveillance en systèmes céréaliers. Phytoma - La santé des végétaux 754: 45-50 [pdf]


Suffert F. 2022. La Russie et la Chine instrumentalisent-elles la réglementation phytosanitaire à des fins géopolitiques ? The Conversation, 25 avril 2022, [pdf]


Orellana-Torrejon C, Vidal T, Gazeau G, Boixel A-L, Gélisse S, Lageyre J, Saint-Jean S, Suffert F. 2022. Multiple scenarios for sexual crosses in the fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici on wheat residues: potential consequences for virulence gene transmission. Fungal Genetics and Biology 163: 103744 [pdf]


Orellana-Torrejon C, Vidal T, Saint-Jean S, Suffert F. 2022. The impact of wheat cultivar mixtures on virulence dynamics in Zymoseptoria tritici populations persist after interseason sexual reproduction. Plant Pathology 71: 1537-1549 [pdf] [press report#1] [press report#2]

Orellana-Torrejon C, Vidal T, Boixel A-L, Gélisse S, Saint-Jean S, Suffert F. 2022. Annual dynamics of Zymoseptoria tritici populations in wheat cultivar mixtures: a compromise between the efficiency and durability of a recently broken-down resistance gene? Plant Pathology 71: 289-303 [pdf] [press report#1] [press report#2] [press report#3]


Boixel AL, Chelle M, Suffert F. 2022. Patterns of thermal adaptation in a worldwide plant pathogen: local diversity and plasticity reveal two-tier dynamics. Ecology and Evolution 12: e8515 [pdf]


Boixel AL, Gélisse S, Marcel TC, Suffert F. 2022. Differential tolerance of Zymoseptoria tritici to altered optimal moisture conditions during the early stages of wheat infection. Journal of Plant Pathology 104: 495–507 [pdf]


Suffert F, Suffert M. 2022. ‘Phytopathological strolls’ in the dual context of COVID-19 lockdown and IYPH2020: transforming constraints into an opportunity for public education about plant pathogens. Plant Pathology 71: 30-42 [pdf] [planches photo] [press report]


Vialatte A, Tibi A, Alignier A, Angeon V, Bedoussac L, Bohan DA, Bougherara D, Carpentier A, Castagneyrol B, Cordeau S, Courtois P, Deguine J-P, Enjalbert J, Fabre F, Féménia F, Fréville H, Goulet F, Grateau R, Grimonprez B, Gross N, Hannachi M, Jeanneret P, Kuhfuss L, Labarthe P, Launay M, Lefebvre M, Lelièvre V, Lemarié S, Martel G, Masson A, Navarrete M, Plantegenest M, Ravigné V, Rusch A, Suffert F, Tapsoba A, Thérond O, Thoyer S, Martinet V. 2022. Promoting crop pest control by plant diversification in agricultural landscapes: a conceptual framework for analysing feedback loops between agro-ecological and socio-economic effects. Advances in Ecological Research 65: 133-165 [pdf]


Vidal T, Gauffreteau A, Enjalbert J, Suffert F. 2021. Mélanger les variétés pour construire des peuplements plus résistants aux bioagresseurs. In: L’immunité des plantes: pour des cultures résistantes aux maladies, Lannou C, Carenta C, Roby D, Ravigné V, Hannachi M, Moury B (Eds), Quae Editions, p. 221-232 ISBN 978-2-7592-3233-8 [pdf]


Ben Krima S, Slim A, Gélisse S, Houki H, Nadaud I, Sourdille P, Yahyaoui A, Ben M’Barek S, Suffert F, Marcel TC. 2021. Life story of Tunisian durum wheat landraces revealed by their genetic and phenotypic diversity. bioRxiv, not peer-reviewed [pdf]


Laval V, Kerdraon L, Barret M, Boudier B, Liabot A-L, Marais C, Balesdent M, Fischer-Le Saux M, Suffert F. 2021. Assessing the cultivability of bacteria and fungi from arable crop residues using metabacoding data as a reference. Diversity, 13: 404 [pdf] [press report]


Paumier D, Bammé B, Penaud A, Valade R, Suffert F. 2021. First report of the sexual stage of the flax pathogen Mycosphaerella linicola in France and its impact on pasmo epidemiology. Plant Pathology 70: 475-483 [pdf]


Kerdraon L, Barret M, Balesdent M, Suffert F*, Laval V*. 2020. Impact of a resistance gene against a fungal pathogen on the plant host residue microbiome: the case of the Leptosphaeria maculans-Brassica napus pathosystem. Molecular Plant Pathology 21: 1445-1558 [pdf] *equal contribution


Kerdraon L, Barret M, Laval V, Suffert F. 2019. Differential dynamics of microbial community networks help identify microorganisms interacting with residue-borne pathogens: the case of Zymoseptoria tritici in wheat. Microbiome 7: 125 [pdf]


Kerdraon L, Laval V, Suffert F. 2019. Microbiomes and pathogen survival in crop residues, an ecotone between plant and soil. Phytobiomes Journal 3: 246-255 [pdf]


Kerdraon L, Balesdent M-H, Barret M, Laval V, Suffert F. 2019. Crop residues in wheat-oilseed rape rotation system: a pivotal, shifting platform for microbial meetings. Microbial Ecology 4: 931-945 [pdf]


Morais D, Duplaix C, Sache I, Laval V, Suffert F*, Walker A-S*. 2019. Overall stability in the genetic structure of a Zymoseptoria tritici population from epidemic to interepidemic stages at a small spatial scale. European Journal of Plant Pathology 154: 423-436 [pdf] *equal contribution


Boixel AL, Delestre G, Legeay J, Chelle M, Suffert F. 2019. Phenotyping thermal responses of yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms at the individual and population levels: proof-of-concept, development and application of an experimental framework to a plant pathogen. Microbial Ecology 78: 42-56 [pdf]


Suffert F, Thompson R. 2018. Some reasons why the latent period should not always be considered constant over the course of a plant disease epidemic. Plant Pathology 67: 1831-1840 [pdf]


Suffert F, Delestre G, Gélisse S. 2018. Sexual reproduction in the fungal foliar pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici is driven by antagonistic density-dependence mechanisms. Microbial Ecology 77: 110-123 [pdf]


Suffert F, Goyeau H, Sache I, Carpentier F, Gélisse S, Morais D, Delestre G. 2018. Epidemiological trade-off between intra- and interannual scales in the evolution of aggressiveness in a local plant pathogen population. Evolutionary Applications 11: 768-780 [pdf]


Soubeyrand S, Garreta V, Monteil C, Suffert F, Goyeau H, Berder J, Berge O, Moinard J, Fournier E, Tharreau D, Morris C, Sache I. 2017. Testing differences between pathogen compositions with small samples and sparse data. Phytopathology 107: 1199-1208 [pdf]


Mumford J, Leach AW, Holt J, Suffert F, Sache I, Moignot B, Hamilton RA. 2017. Integrating crop bioterrorism hazards into pest risk assessment tools. In: Gullino ML, Stack J, Fletcher J, Mumford J (Eds.), Practical tools for plant and food biosecurity, Springer, p. 121-142 ISBN 978-3-319-46897-6 [pdf]


Suffert F. 2017. Characterization of the threat resulting from plant pathogens use as anti-crop bioweapons: an EU perspective on agroterrorism. In: Gullino ML, Stack J, Fletcher J, Mumford J (Eds.), Practical tools for plant and food biosecurity, Springer, p. 31-60 ISBN 978-3-319-46897-6 [pdf]


Suffert F, Delestre G, Carpentier F, Walker AS, Gazeau G, Gélisse S, Duplaix C. 2016. Fashionably late partners have more fruitful encounters: impact of the timing of co-infection and pathogenicity on sexual reproduction in Zymoseptoria tritici. Fungal Genetics and Biology 92: 40-49 [pdf]


Morais D, Gélisse S, Laval V, Sache I, Suffert F. 2016. Inferring the origin of primary inoculum of Zymoseptoria tritici from differential adaptation of resident and immigrant populations to wheat cultivars. European Journal of Plant Pathology 145: 393-404. [pdf]


Morais D, Sache I, Suffert F*, Laval V*. 2016. Is onset of Septoria tritici blotch epidemics related to local availability of ascospores? Plant Pathology 65: 250-260 10.1111/ppa.12408 [pdf] *equal contribution


Suffert F, Ravigné V, Sache I. 2015. Seasonal changes drive short-term selection for fitness traits in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 81: 6367-6379 [pdf]


Siou D, Gélisse S, Laval V, Suffert F, Lannou C. 2015. Mutual exclusion between fungal species of the FHB complex in a wheat spike. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 81: 4682-4689. [pdf]


Morais D, Laval V, Sache I, Suffert F. 2015. Comparative pathogenicity of sexual and asexual spores of Zymoseptoria tritici (Septoria tritici blotch) on wheat leaves. Plant Pathology 64: 1429–1439 [pdf]


Siou D, Gélisse S, Laval V, Repinçay C, Bourdat-Deschamps M, Suffert F, Lannou C. 2015. Interactions between head blight pathogens: consequences on disease development and toxins production in wheat spikes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 81: 957-965 [pdf]


Gautier A, Marcel T, Confais J, Crane C, Kema G, Suffert F, Walker A-S. 2014. Development of a rapid multiplex SSR genotyping method to study populations of the plant pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola. BMC Research Notes 7: 373 [pdf]


Siou D, Gelisse S, Laval V, Repinçay C, Canalès R, Suffert F, Lannou C. 2013. Effect of wheat spike infection timing on Fusarium head blight development and mycotoxin accumulation. PlantPathology 63: 390-399 [pdf]


Suffert F, Sache I, Lannou C. 2013. Assessment of quantitative traits of aggressiveness in Mycosphaerella graminicola on adult wheat plants. Plant Pathology 62: 1330-1341 [pdf]


Bernard F, Sache I, Suffert F, Chelle M. 2013. The development of a foliar fungal pathogen does react to leaf temperature! New Phytologist 198: 232-240 [pdf]


Reynaud P, Le Fay-Souloy C, Moignot B, Suffert F. 2012. The European PLANTFOODSEC project: Framework for a national approach to analyse and prioritise plant health risks. EuroReference 7: 32-35 [pdf]


Ben Slimane R, Bancal P, Suffert F, Bancal M-O. 2012. Localized septoria leaf blotch lesions in winter wheat flag leaf do not accelerate apical senescence during necrotrophic stage. Journal of PlantPathology 94: 543-553 [pdf]


Suffert F, Sache I. 2011. Relative importance of different types of inoculum to the establishment of Mycosphaerella graminicola in wheat crops in north-west Europe. Plant Pathology 60: 878-889 [pdf]


Suffert F, Sache I, Lannou C. 2011. Early stages of Septoria tritici blotch epidemics of winter wheat: Build-up, overseasoning, and release of primary inoculum. Plant Pathology 60: 166-177 [pdf]


Sache I, Roy A-S, Suffert F, Desprez-Loustau M-L. 2011. Invasive plant pathogens in Europe. In: Biological invasions: Economic and environmental costs of alien plant, animal, and microbe species, Pimentel D (Eds.), CRC Press, London, 227-242 [pdf]


Suffert F. 2010. Emergences épidémiologiques non-conventionnelles et analyse de risque : le cas de la biosécurité agricole et de l'agroterrorisme. In: Barnouin J et Sache I (Eds), Les maladies émergentes. Épidémiologie chez le végétal, l'animal et l'homme, Quae Editions, p. 373-384 ISBN 978-2-7592-0510-3


Stack J, Suffert F, Gullino ML. 2010. Bioterrorism: A threat to plant biosecurity? In: Gullino ML et Strange RN (Eds), The role of plant pathology in food safety and food security, Springer, p. 115-132 [pdf]


Gosme M, Suffert F, Jeuffroy MH. 2010. Intensive versus low-input cropping systems: What is the optimal partitioning of agricultural area in order to reduce pesticide use while maintaining productivity? Agricultural Systems 103: 110-116 [pdf]


Barbier M, Sache I, Prete G, Suffert F. 2009. Cultures en péril ? L'affaire de tous. Pour La Science 65: 110-115 [pdf]


Suffert F, Latxague E, Sache I. 2009. Plant pathogens as agroterrorist weapons: Assessment of the threat for European agriculture and forestry. Food Security 1: 221-232 [pdf]


Suffert F, Barbier M, Sache I, Latxague E. 2008. Biosécurité des cultures et agroterrorisme. Une menace, des questions scientifiques et une opportunité : réactiver un dispositif d’épidémiovigilance. Le Courrier de l'Environnement 56: 67-86 [pdf]


Suffert F, Lucas JM. 2008. Lateral roots of carrot have a low impact on alloinfections involved in a cavity spot epidemic caused by Pythium violae. Journal of General Plant Pathology 74: 296-301 [pdf]


Suffert F, Delalande D, Prunier M, Andrivon D. 2008. Modulation of primary and secondary infections in epidemics of carrot cavity spot through agronomic management practices. Plant Pathology 57: 109-121 [pdf]


Suffert F, Montfort F. 2008. Pathometric relationships reveal epidemiological processes involved in carrot cavity spot epidemics. European Journal of Plant Pathology 122: 425-436 [pdf]


Suffert F. 2007. Cavity spot de la carotte, l’épidémiologie appliquée à la gestion des risques parasitaires. Comprendre et modéliser les mécanismes d’une maladie d’origine tellurique dans une perspective de protection intégrée. Phytoma 601: 36-40 [pdf]


Latxague E, Sache I, Pinon J, Andrivon D, Barbier M, Suffert F. 2007. A methodology for assessing the risk posed by the deliberate and harmful use of plant pathogens in Europe. EPPO Bulletin 37: 427-435 [pdf]


Desprez-Loustau ML, Robin C, Buée M, Courtecuisse R, Garbaye J, Suffert F, Sache I, Rizzo D. 2007. The fungal dimension of biological invasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22: 472-480 [pdf]


Suffert F, Montfort F. 2007. Demonstration of secondary infection by Pythium violae in epidemics of carrot cavity spot using root transplantation as method of soil infestation. Plant Pathology 56: 588-594 [pdf]


Suffert F. 2007. Kinetics modelling of the carrot cavity spot caused by a complex of pathogens of the genus Pythium dominated by Pythium violaeCanadian Journal of Plant Pathology 29: 41-55 [pdf]


Suffert F, Guibert M. 2007. The ecology of a Pythium community in relation to the epidemiology of carrot cavity spot. Applied Soil Ecology 35: 488-501 [pdf]


Suffert F. 2005. A theoretical approach to the 'complementation' notion concerning strategies of crop protection. Phytoprotection 86: 89-92 [pdf]


Suffert F. 2003. L'utilisation volontaire d'agents phytopathogènes contre les cultures. Phytoma 563: 8-12 [pdf]


Suffert F. 2002. L'épidémiologie végétale, nouvelle discipline de guerre ? Lumière sur le bioterrorisme agricole, un enjeu émergent pour la recherche agronomique. Le Courrier de l'Environnement 47: 57-69 [pdf]

Supervised PhD candidates

Cécilia Fontyn

(2018 - 2022; director)

"Is aggressiveness a significant component for the adaptation of Puccinia triticina populations to the cultivated wheat landscape?" (ED ABIES) [abstract] [publication #1] [publication#2] [Phloème prize 2022]

Carolina Orellana-Torrejon

(2018-2022; co-director)

"Impact of wheat cultivar mixtures on the annual adaptation dynamics of a Zymoseptoria tritici population to a recently broken down qualitative resistant gene" (ED ABIES) [abstract & pdf] [publication #1#2#3] [BSPP best student paper prize 2022]

Safa Ben Krima

(2018-2020; co-supervisor)

"Adaptation of phytopathogenic fungi to genetically heterogeneous host populations: case study of the durum wheat-Zymoseptoria tritici pathosystem" (ED SEVE) [abstract] [publication #1]

Anne-Lise Boixel

(2015-2020; co-director)

"Environmental heterogeneity, a driver of adaptation to temperature in foliar plant pathogen populations?" (ED ABIES) [abstract & pdf] [publication #1#2] [Dufrenoy silver medal of the Academy of Agriculture]

Lydie Kerdraon

(2015-2019; director)

"Microbial diversity and pathogen-microbiome interactions in crop residues: the case of Zymoseptoria tritici and Leptosphaeria maculans in a wheat-oilseed rape system" (ED ABIES) [abstract & pdf] [publication #1#2#3#4#5]

David Morais

(2011-2015; co-supervisor)

"Determinants of the early epidemic stages of wheat septoria leaf blotch: quantity, efficacy and origin of primary inoculum" (ED ABIES) [abstract & pdf] [publication #1#2#3#4]

Frédéric Bernard

(2009-2012; co-supervisor)

"The development of a foliar fungal pathogen does react to temperature, but to which temperature?" (ED ABIES) [abstract & pdf] [publication #1#2]