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Soutenance de thèse - 12 mars

Soutenance de thèse - 12 mars
Jaafar Kilani - "Deciphering stress signal transduction in Botrytis cinerea by phosphoproteomics and functional genetics"

Jafaar Kilani soutiendra sa thèse le lundi 12 mars 2018 à 10Hdans la grande salle de BIOGER (Avenue Lucien Brétignières, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon).

Le jury sera composé de:

M. Antonio Di PIETRO, Professeur à l'université de Cordoue, Espagne (Rapporteur)
Mme Nathalie POUSSEREAU, Maître de conférence à l'université de Lyon 1 (Rapportrice)
M. Ludovic BONHOMME, Maître de conférence à l'université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (Examinateur)
Mme Fabienne MALAGNAC, Professeure à l'université Paris-Sud (Examinatrice)
Mme Sabine FILLINGER, Directrice de recherche à l'INRA de Versailles-Grignon (Directrice de Thèse)

 

Résumé:
La perception et l’adaptation à l’environnement sont des processus indispensables pour la survie des organismes vivants. Le champignon phytopathogène Botrytis cinerea peut ainsi percevoir différents types de signaux qu’ils soient chimiques ou physiques. La voie de signalisation de la MAPK Sak1 est impliquée dans l’adaptation au stress osmotique, oxydatif et pariétal, mais aussi dans la sporulation et le pouvoir pathogène en régulant la pénétration de la plante et le développement des nécroses. Afin d’approfondir les connaissances existantes sur la voie de Sak1, nous avons réalisé des études globales basées sur des techniques de protéomique et phosphoprotéomique. L’analyse de protéomique comparative entre la souche sauvage et les mutants de signalisation ∆bos1 et ∆sak1 a notamment mis en évidence que la MAPK Sak1 régule l’abondance de protéines impliquées dans la voie des protéines G et la voie calcique. Cette connexion avec les protéines G a été confirmée par une baisse de la concentration en AMPc chez le mutant ∆sak1. L’utilisation du fludioxonil comme signal de l’activation de la MAPK Sak1 pour l’analyse par phosphoprotéomique à mis en évidence des modifications de l’état de phosphorylation de protéines. Parmi ces protéines différentiellement phosphorylées, la présence de PKAR (sous-unité régulatrice de la protéine kinase A) et du facteur de transcription CRZ1, indiquent respectivement une action sur la voie via protéines G et la voie calcique, validant les résultats obtenus par protéomique. Le phosphoprotéome a révélé une « phosducin-like protein », PhnA. Sa caractérisation fonctionnelle montre son rôle dans l’adaptation aux stress, la sporulation et la germination, ainsi que dans le pouvoir pathogène mettant ainsi en évidence un nouveau facteur de pathogénicité chez B. cinerea.
Notre étude a permis de révéler des interactions entre Sak1 et d’autres voies de signalisation non suspectées, agissant aussi bien sur la production de certains composants (régulations transcriptionnelles et traductionnelles) que sur la phosphorylation (modifications post-traductionnelles). Nos résultats constitueront la base de nouvelles recherches pour compléter nos connaissances sur ces interactions impliquant l’adaptation au stress et la pathogénie de B. cinerea.

Mots clés : Botrytis cinerea, voies de signalisation, phosphorylation, protéomique, fongicide

 

Abstract :
Perception and adaptation to the environment are essential processes for the survival of living organisms. The phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea can thus perceive different types of signals, whether they are chemical or physical. The signalling pathway of the Sak1 MAPK is involved in the adaptation to osmotic, oxidative and cell wall stress, but also in sporulation and pathogenicity by regulating plant penetration and necrosis development. In order to deepen existing knowledge of the Sak1 pathway, we have carried out global studies based on proteomics and phosphoproteomics techniques. A comparative proteomics analysis between the wild type and the signalling mutants ∆bos1 and ∆sak1 showed, among others, that Sak1 regulates the abundance of proteins involved in the G-protein pathway and calcium pathway. This connection with G-proteins was confirmed by a decrease in cAMP concentration in the ∆sak1 mutant. Using fludioxonil as signal for the activation of Sak1 for a phosphoproteomic analysis revealed changes in the state of protein phosphorylation. Among these differentially phosphorylated proteins, the presence of PKAR (regulatory subunit of protein kinase A) and the transcription factor CRZ1, indicates an action on the G-protein and calcium pathway respectively, validating the results obtained by proteomics. Phosphoproteomics revealed a phosducin-like protein, PhnA. Its functional characterization reveals its role in stress adaptation, sporulation and germination, as well as in pathogenicity, thus demonstrating a new pathogenicity factor in B. cinerea.
Our study revealed interactions between Sak1 and other unsuspected signalling pathways, affecting both the production of certain components (transcriptional and translational regulations) and phosphorylation (post-translational modifications). Our results will create the basis for new research questions to complement our understanding of these interactions involving adaptation to stress and pathogenesis of B. cinerea.

Keywords : Botrytis cinerea, signalling pathway, phosphorylation, proteomic, fungicide