Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu INRAE Université Paris-Saclay AgroParisTech Agronomy joint research unit

Home page


Assessing the production stability in a context of adverse climate and of crop diversification (Axe 3)

Participants : C Barbu, C Colnenne, T Doré, A Gauffreteau, N Guilpart, D Makowski

In Axe 3, we address the following questions:

(i) Does climate change induce higher yield instability?

(ii) It is possible to reduce production instability by a crop diversification?

(iii) How climate change will impact cropping zones?

A first challenge concerns the assessment of climate impact on crop yields. A large number of public and private institutions have developed weather-based and satellite-based indices to anticipate yield losses. In addition to these simple indices, a flurry of aggregated indices based on statistical methods, machine learning techniques, and process-based models have been produced, and little is known about their effectiveness to actually anticipate yield loss. It is becoming urgent to conduct an in-depth evaluation of their accuracy and to determine their ability to analyze risk of yield loss under contrasted climate change scenarios and under several diseases or pests’ attack, potentially increased with climate change.

A second challenge concerns the evaluation of the capacity of crop diversification to mitigate production instability. Monocultures and the intensive use of synthetic inputs are often seen as factors increasing vulnerability of cropping systems to climate change. It has been hypothesized that a diversification of the agroecosystems (longer crop sequences, mixing of species and varieties etc.) will reduced adverse climate change impacts. But the ability of crop diversification to reduce the vulnerability to climate change has not been clearly demonstrated.

Finally, there are now evidences that climate change will have an impact on the distribution area of crops in the next coming decades. Although several agricultural regions are threatened by climate change, the warmer climate expected in high latitude regions may offer new opportunities for agriculture expansion in the north. It is important to explore potential distributions of cropping areas for informing major stakeholders on benefits or disadvantages of alternative land use scenarios, in particular scenarios based on diversified cropping systems. Therefore, the key question is not only “how to crop” but, also, “where to crop".